Charles Darwin – a scientist who has unveiled the secrets of evolution of living organisms
A child who has grown up amidst the comments like useless fellow by father, dull student by his teachers etc has grown up into a scientist who has unveiled the secrets of evolution of living organisms.
A doctor in London was always complaining about his son with his friends that he is fit for nothing and is always in the job of collecting and observing the cockroaches and other insects. Such a boy was able to discover the various aspects relating to the evolution of the living beings on the earth. He has written a book called “The origin of species” which is a milestone in the human sciences. He is none other than the famous scientist Charles Darwin.
Darwin was born on February 12th, 1809 in Shrewsbury in England. He did not excel in education in spite of all the facilities provided by his father who was a doctor. Teachers were of a opinion that he was a dull student. He could not continue the education in the medical studies though his father admitted him in the Edinburgh University. In order to get some degree or the other to satisfy his father he joined Philosophical studies but the same scenario repeated. He was introduced to the captain of a ship called beagle by his professor. Even without the permission of his father Darwin jumped into that ship in order to get a chance to view different animals belonging to different island. Darwin has regularly sent insects, fossils, animals, plants and stones after observing them. Based on the study conducted on them he wrote the book which stood as a standard book since 150 years. Darwin’s theory states that living organisms have gradually evolved but not been created by super natural force at once. This has become very important theory in the related studies like microbiology, genetics, molecular biology and DNA tests.
Great Scientist : Marconi and Wireless Broadcast Technology
The telescope and the telephone which are invented during the period between 1838 and 1875 B.C brought revolutionary changes in the broadcast field. As the whole network is run on the wires, there used to occur some problems when the wires are been cut. So in order to overcome this problem, the famous electrical engineer Gugliyellmo Marconi, had introduced a new system called the wireless technology broadcasting process. This new invention the wireless broadcasting had brought a revolutionary change in the broadcasting field next to the wire broadcasting.
The radio waves are been invented by the famous scientist of Germany Henrick Hurge in the year 1887 B.C and the next process of how to send the information through these radio waves is been invented by Marconi only. For the first time he had invented the wireless broadcasting technology which is an electronic message of up to 2.4 Km distance.
After all these processes are completed, he invented the first wireless message in the year 1899 March 28, and became success. The first message is sent from the Dover place to Wimereux in the France which is around 50 Km away from the place.
In the year 1901, December 12, another great revolution took place in the broadcasting field. A wireless message is been sent from the Poldhu of England to New Poundland which is 3400 Km distance from each other. This is the first continental wireless message in the world.
The wireless technology is used to send the wireless messages to the remote areas and from one ship to the other ship. It is because of this wireless technology many lives in the Titanic tragedy are been saved. In the same way through the radio waves a large number of people are been entertained and gaining knowledge.
William Gilbert Short Biography- William Gilbert Is A Research Expert.
William Gilbert took his birth in 1544, May 24 in England. From childhood William Gilbert had a great interest in studies and especially in General knowledge. Any new thing used to excite him a lot and he used to observe that very keenly. William Gilbert received B.A degree in 1561, M.A in 1564, M.D in 1569 from Cambridge University. Then he practiced medicine. He was greatly interested in Physical science and in Geology.
In 1600 William Gilbert wrote various books on Magnetic nature. He has done various experiments and researches on magnetic nature and found many new things. When the entire world is to believe that entire universe revolves around earth, then William Gilbert was the first person to find out the magnetic nature of earth. The books wrote by him were very useful to many scientists, He died on Nov 30, 1603.
Leo Tolstoy was a famous Russian writer. His narratives “war and peace” and “Anna Karenina” are famous worldwide. He wrote so many novels, stories, essays and plays. He had a good name as educationalist. Tolstoy’s works influenced Mahatma Gandhi, Junior Martin Luther king.
Tolstoy was born in 1828, September 9th in Tula area in Russia in an estate ‘Yasnaya polyana’. This estate belongs to his family. He is the fourth son to the Nicolay Ilyich Tolstoy and Maria Volkonsky. Because of his parents died in childhood these four children were brought up by relatives. Tolstoy started studying law, oriental languages in Kazan University in 1844. His teachers stated that he was not interested to learn. He went to Yasnaya polyana by leaving university without completion of his education. After that he lived more years in Moscow and St Petersburg. After that he joined in army in 1851. After that he started writing narrations. He wrote so many narrations on those Russian situations and the troubles of the farmers. He died in his 82 years age in 1910, November 20th with Pneumonia. His birth place was changed into a museum.
We all know that who walk first on the moon that is ‘Neil Armstrong’. But it’s difficult to say that who walked last on the moon. Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt are in records as the last persons to walk on moon. They went to the moon in Apollo 17 rocket in December, 1972. These two people stayed on the moon from December 11th to 14th, 1972. Harrison is the 12th person till now who went to the moon. Cernan and Harrison went on the same rocket, first Cernan and after that Harrison came out from the rocket. But it was not the first time to Cernan to go to the moon. So Harrison’s name is in records as the last to go to moon. But when coming back from the moon first Harrison went into the rocket. After that Sernon went into the rocket. So that Eugene Cernan name is in record as the last person to walk on moon.
The scientist Albert Michelson did experiments on light to separate the light into waves and again to combine them. For this he discovered a method known as ‘Interferometry’. By using this, the dimensions of the planets are measured. Albert Michelson was born on December, 1852 in Prussia. His family went to America when he was two years old. Albert graduated in 1873 and he worked in navy for some years. After that he taught physics and chemistry. At that time Albert was interested in study of light. The question that was always in his mind was ‘with what velocity does the light travels’? Albert measured the light velocity with the equipments on those days.
After that Albert worked as Head of Physics department in Clark University. After that he became the first Head to the Chicago University in 1892. He was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physics in 1907 in America. Albert Michelson died on May 9th, on 1931 in California.
Wireless technology is invented by Guglielmo Marconi who belongs to Italy. He was born in 1874, April 25th in Italy. He studied privately as he was born in rich family. From childhood he wanted to learn new things. So he observed everything deeply. He read an essay when he was studying in viverno technical institute. That essay name was ‘Is it possible to transmit radio waves without wires’. In those days it was great to transmit the telegraph by wires in 1894. After two years Marconi did experiments to transmit radio waves without wires up to two miles. As Italy government didn’t recognized his invention he gave it to the British. Marconi used his radio instrument in some ships. He developed to transmit the radio waves up to 31 miles in 1899 without wires. In 1901 they made radio waves that travelled across Atlantic Ocean. So there is big change came in wireless industry. After that wireless system was used in many ways. In 1909 Marconi received noble prize with another scientist Carl Ferdinand. Now we receiving and delivering signals without wires because of invention of Marconi.
There are no people who do not show interest in Space. Once the rockets which were rare are now often going into space. Now-a-days the journey of space is a common matter. But before some decades the space journey was an imagination. The inventions of Goddard made the space journey possible. He was born in 1882, October 5th. He wondered how things fly when fired. Goddard stated that we can make the rockets fly by using fire and also we can travel to the moon, in his 32 years old. He proved that the rocket travels also in vacuum in 1915. In space research history march 26th, 1926 is a wonderful day. On that day Goddard tested rocket which is made up with liquid fuel. That rocket went up to 41 feet height from the earth. That experiment is the base to present rockets. Goddard also made missiles on the basis of that rocket. But he died without fulfilling his desire to send a rocket to the moon. He died with throat cancer in 1959, August 10th.
Marie Curie received Nobel Prize Twice-Marie Curie Died on 4th July, 1934
Marie Curie is one of the famous women scientists of Physical science. But she did not limit her researches only to physical science. That’s why she has received Noble prize for her varied excellence for two times.
Marie Curie took Noble prize once in physics in 1903 and for chemistry in 1911. Marie was born in Poland on 7th November, 1867.She stood first in studies from her childhood .She showed excellent intelligence in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics. She obtained Masters Degree in both Mathematics and Physical Science. She took Doctorate in 1903. She conducted her researches in radioactivity. She experimented various substances for their radioactivity and finally in 1910 could find Radium separately. Marie curie died on 4th July, 1934.
Women Space Astronaut Kalpana Chawla-Kalpana’s Short Biography
In the astronomical field India got famous again because of Indo-American astronaut Kalpana Chawla. She is the first lady astronaut who has gone on a space tour in entire Asia. She was born in Karnal of Haryana state to Bhanwarilal and Samyogita on 1st July, 1961.
Education of Kalpana: Kalpana was graduated from Tagore school, Karnal. Kalpana took Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical engineering from Punjab Engineering College, Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering from University of Texas.
Inspiration: Kalpana got inspired from the various photos of aero planes collected by her brother Sanjay who is also interested in flights .Kalpana has under gone space tour in 1997 for the first time.Functioning as an astronaut in NASA went into space in Columbia space shuttle.